Stomatitis in dogs and cats

Dogs and cats stomatitis causes, symptoms and treatment

There are many causes of canine and feline stomatitis. The common causes are: renal failure, trauma (foreign objects, chewing or ingesting caustic agents, chewing on electrical cords), Immune-mediated disease (pemphigus, lupus), upper respiratory viruses (feline viral rhinotracheitis, feline calocivirus), infection secondary to immunosuppression (feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus), tooth root abscesses, severe periodontitis, osteomyelitis and thallium intoxication. The clinician should always consider the possibility of immunosuppression with secondary stomatitis in dogs and cats (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism).

Most dogs and cats with stomatitis have thick, ropey saliva, severe halitosis, and/or anorexia caused by pain. Some animals are febrile and lose weight. A thorough oral examination usually requires that the animal be under anesthesia. Stomatitis in dogs and cats is diagnosed by gross observation of the lesions, but an underlying cause should be sought. Biopsy is routinely indicated, as are routine clinical pathology data and radiographs of the mandible and maxilla, including the tooth roots.

Stomatitis treatment in dogs and cats is both symptomatic (to control signs) and specific (e.g., directed at the underlying cause). Teeth cleaning and aggressive antibacterial therapy (i.e., systemic antibiotics effective against aerobes and anaerobes, cleansing oral rinses with antibacterial solutions such as chlohexidine) often help. In some animals, extracting teeth that are associated with the most severely affected areas may help. Bovine lactoferrin has been reported to ameliorate otherwise resistant lesions in cats. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause.

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