The complexity of canine hepatitis is just beginning to be appreciated and understood. Lack of adequate characterization of these diseases and the temptation to extrapolate directly from medical literature in human patients to say that hepatitis in dogs is identical to those long studied in humans may be preventing more progress being made in veterinary medicine.

Canine hepatitis
comprises a spectrum of hepatic diseases that share similar historic, clinical and possibly histopathologic features. Dogs with hepatitis are ill for weeks to months with combinations of anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, polyuria and polydipsia, jaundice, abdominal effusion and hemorrhagic tendencies.

Occasionally, high serum liver enzyme activities are detected during routine evaluation before elective surgery in asymptomatic dogs. In addition, there may be clinically relevant hepatic disorders in which liver enzyme activities are silent but there is other evidence of serious hepatic disease. A liver biopsy is crucial for accurate diagnosis and prognosis, although there is great overlap in histopathologic findings among canine hepatitis.

To better understand the role of the immune system in the development of hepatitis in dogs, studies sought to determine the frequency of serum antibodies directed at cell nuclear material, smooth muscle mitochondria, and liver membrane in 21 and 24 dogs with confirmed hepatitis respectively. These studies have demonstrated the presence of certain autoantibodies in dogs with hepatitis, but the clinical significance of these findings remains to be clarified.

Canine Hepatitis | Hepatitis in Dogs

Canine Hypothyroidism | Hypothyroidism in Dogs
Structural or functional abnormalities of the thyroid gland can lead to deficient production of thyroid hormones. A convenient classification scheme for hypothyroidism in dogs has been devised that is based on the location of the problem within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland complex. Primary hypothyroidism in dogs is the most common form of this disorder; it results from problems within the thyroid gland, usually destruction of the thyroid gland.

The two most common histologic findings in this disorder are lymphocytic thyroiditis and idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland. Lymphocytic thyroiditis is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by a diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages into the thyroid gland. The factors that trigger the development of lymphocytic thyroiditis are poorly understood, but genetics factors undoubtedly play a role.

Idiopathic atrophy of the thyroid gland is characterized by loss of the thyroid parenchyma. There is no inflammatory infiltrate, even in areas where small follicles or follicular remnants are present. The cause of idiopathic thyroid atrophy is not known, but it may be a primary degenerative disorder. It may also represent an end stage of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis.

Hypothyroidism symptoms in dogs

Clinical signs of the more common forms of primary hypothyroidism in dogs usually develop during middle age. Clinical signs tend to develop at an earlier age in breeds at increased risk than other breeds. There is no apparent sex-related predilection.

Dog Breeds that have an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism:

English Pointer
German Wirehaired Pointer
American Staffordshire Terrier
American Pit Bull Terrier
Giant Schnauzer
Golden Retriever
Chesapeake Bay retriever
Brittany Spaniel
Australian Shepherd
English Setter
Skye Terrier
Old English Sheepdog
Petit Basset Griffon
Rhodesian Ridgeback
Shetland Sheepdog
Siberian Husky
Doberman Pinscher
Cocker Spaniel

Clinical signs are quite variable and depend in part on the age of the dog at the time a deficiency in thyroid hormone develops. Clinical signs may also differ between breeds. For example, truncal alopecia may dominate in some breeds, whereas thinning of the haircoat dominates in other breeds. In adult dogs, the most consistent clinical signs of hypothyroidism result from decreased cellular metabolism and its effect on the dog's mental status and activity.

Most dogs with hypothyroidism show more mental dullness, lethargy, exercise intolerance or unwillingness to exercise, and a propensity to gain weight without a corresponding increase in appetite or food intake. These signs are often gradual in onset, subtle, and not recognized by the owner until after thyroid hormone supplementation has been initiated. Additional clinical signs of hypothyroidism in dogs typically involve the skin, less commonly, the neuromuscular system.

Canine Hypothyroidism | Hypothyroidism in Dogs

 Dogs in heat - FAQ.
Q. What are dogs in heat?

A. Heat is a synonym for the estrous cycle. It is during this cycle that bitches may get pregnant.

Q. What are the symptoms of dogs in heat?

A. Bitches tend to bleed from the vagina when they're on heat and swelling of the vulva occur. They also experience increased urination. For small breeds, there is usually not much bleeding so owners may need to pay close attention to their female dog to notice her 1st cycle.

Q. When does a bitch come on heat?

A. Usually, the bitch has her 1st cycle at around 6 months old. Some bitches start earlier and other female dogs later. When owners get a new female dog, they should monitor her and note when she has her 1st cycle. If the bitch is 14 months of age and still has not been in heat yet, owners should get the opinion of a pet clinician.

Q. How long does dogs in heat last?

A. Around 3 weeks or twenty-one days. In some female dogs, the heat only lasts 2 weeks, although in some breeds it may last 4 weeks.

Q. How often are dogs in heat?

A. Most bitches have regular estrous cycles; every 6 to 8 months.

Q. When can bitches pregnant?

A. Female dogs can only get pregnant when on heat. The rule-of-thumb is that the most fertile period is between eleven to fifteen days of the estrous cycle. During that time, female dogs will most likely let any male dogs to mount her and mating occurs.

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Dogs in Heat | Dogs on Heat

Esophageal neoplasms in dogs causes, symptoms and treatment
Primary esophageal sarcomas in dogs are often due to Spirocerca lupi. Primary esophageal carcinomas are of unknown etiology in dogs and cats. Leiomyomas are found at the lower esophageal sphincter in older dogs. Thyroid carcinomas and pulmonary alveolar carcinomas may invade the esophagus in dogs. Squamous cell carcinomas are the most common esophageal neoplasm in cats.

Dogs and cats with primary esophageal tumors may be asymptomatic until the tumor is far advanced, and these animals are diagnosed fortuitously when thoracic radiographs are obtained for other reasons. Regurgitation, anorexia, and/or fetid breath may occur if the tumor is large or causes esophageal dysfunction. If the esophagus is involved secondarily, clinical signs may result from esophageal dysfunction or tumor effects on other tissues.

Plain thoracic radiographs may reveal a soft tissue density in the caudal lung fields. These tumors may be difficult to radiographically discern from pulmonary lesions and usually require contrast esophagrams to make this distinction. Esophagoscopy easily finds intraluminal and intramural masses or strictures and is sensitive in finding extraluminal masses causing esophageal stricture (i.e., the endoscopist will not be able to normally distend the esophageal lumen). Retroflexing the tip of an endoscope while it is within the stomach is the best method of identifying lower esophageal sphicter leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas in dogs and cats.

Not much a clinician can do for treatment of esophageal neoplasms in dogs and cats. Surgical resection is rarely curative (except for leiomyomas at the lower esophageal sphincter) because of the advanced nature of most esophageal neoplasms when they are diagnosed. Resection may be palliative though. Photodynamic therapy may be beneficial in dogs and cats with small superficial esophageal neoplasms. For all those reasons, the pronostic for dogs and cats with esophageal neoplasms is usually poor unfortunately.

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Canine Esophageal Neoplasms Esophageal | Neoplasms in Dogs

Canine Fever | Fever in Dogs
The term fever in dogs refers to a syndrome of malaise (or nonspecific systemic clinical signs) and pyrexia (or hyperthermia). Dog fever constitutes a protective physiologic response to both infectious and noninfectious causes of inflammation that enhances the host's ability to eliminate a noxious agent.

A variety of stimuli, including bacteria, endotoxins, viruses, immune complexes, activated complement, and necrotic tissue, trigger the release of endogenous pyrogens by the phagocytic system (mainly the mononuclear cells, or macrophages). These endogenous pyrogens include interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6, among others. They activate the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, raising the set point of the thermostat by generating heat (through muscle contraction and shivering) and conserving heat (through vasoconstriction).

In humans, several patterns of fever have been associated with specific disorders; however, this does not apear to be the case in dogs with fever. In people with continuous fever, the pyrexia is maintained for several days or weeks; this type of fever is associated with bacterial endocarditis, central nervous system lesions, tuberculosis, and some malignancies. In people with intermittent fever, the body temperature decreases to normal but rises again for periods of 1 to 2 days; this is seen in brucellosis and some malignancies. In remittent fever the temperature varies markedly each day but is always above normal (i.e., 39.2 degrees Celsius); this type of fever is associated with bacterial infections. The term relapsing fever is used to refer to febrile periods that alternate with variable periods of normal body temperature, as seen in humans with malaria.

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Canine Fever | Fever in Dogs

Anaerobic infections in dogs are commonly associated with infections of the oropharynx, the central nervous system, the subcateous space, the musculoskeletal system, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, and the female genital tract, and they are relatively common in animals with aspiration pneumonia or consolidated lung lobes. Dogs and cats with gingivitis/stomatitis, rhinitis, retrobulbar abscesses, aspiration pneumonia, pyothorax, otitis media or interna, bite wounds, open wounds, open fractures, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, bacterial hepatitis, pyometra, vaginitis, bacteremia, and valvular endocarditis should be suspected to be infected with anaerobes.

Improving the blood supply and oxygenation of the infected area is the primary goal for treatment of dog infections. Antibiotic therapy should be used concurrently with drainage or debridement. Parenteral antibiotics should be administered for several days in dogs with infections like pyothorax, pneumonia, peritonitis, and clinical signs consistent with bacteremia. Penicillin derivatives, clindamycin, metronidazole, cephalosporins (first and second generation), chloramphenicol are used commonly for the treatment of infections in dogs.

With the exception of Bacteroides fragilis, penicillin derivatives have excellent activity against anaerobes. If gram-negative coccobacilli are detected cytologically in a neutrophilic exudate, particularly if associated with the oral cavity, metronidazole, a first-generation cephalosporin, or clindamycin should be administered instead of a penicillin derivative. Because concurrent anaerobic and aerobic dog infection occur frequently, combination antimicrobial treatment is often indicated, particularly if life-threatening signs of bacteremia exist.

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Canine Infections | Infections in Dogs

Canine Leukemia | Leukemia in Dogs
In dog leukemias constitute fewer than 10% of all hemolymphatic neoplasms and are therefore considered rare. However, the leukemia to lymphoma ratio is approximately 1:7 to 1:10. This ratio is artificially high, because most dogs with lymphoma are treated by their local clinicians, whereas most dogs with leukemia are referred for treatment. Although most leukemias in dogs are considered to be spontaneous in origin, radiation and viral particles have been identified as possible etiologic factors in dogs with cancer.

Acute myeloid leukemias in dogs are more common than acute lymphoid leukemias, constituting approximately three fourths of the cases of acute leukemia. It should be remembered, however, that morphologically, most acute leukemias are initially classified as lymphoid. After cytochemical staining of the smears or immunophenotyping is performed, approximately one third to one half of them are then reclassified as myeloid. Approximately half of the dogs with myeloid leukemia are found to have myelomonocytic differentiation when cytochemical staining or immunophenotyping is performed.

Leukemias in dogs are malignant neoplasms that originate from hematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow. These cells are unable to undergo terminal differentiation, therefore, they self-replicate as a clone of usually immature (and non-functional) cells. The neoplastic cells may or may not appear in peripheral circulation, thus the confusing term aleukemic and subleukemic are used to refer to leukemias in which neoplastic cells proliferate within the bone marrow but are absent or scarce in the circulation.
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Canine Leukemia | Leukemia in Dogs

Dog Allergies | Allergies in Dogs

Allergies in dogs
are basically an immune system overreaction. The nasal cavity is an uncommon primary site for allergic disease in dogs and it has not been well characterized yet. However, dermatologists provide anecdotal reports of atopic dogs rubbing the face (possibly indicating nasal pruritus) and experiencing serous nasal discharge, in addition to dermatologic signs. Dog allergies are generally considered to be a hypersensitivity response within the nasal cavity and sinuses to airborn antigens. Other antigens are capable of inducing a hypersensitivity response as well, and thus the differential diagnoses must include parasites, other infectious diseases and neoplasia.
Dogs with allergies experience sneezing and/or serous mucopurulent nasal discharge. Signs may be acute or chronic. Careful questioning of the owner may reveal a relationship between signs and potential allergens. For instance, signs of dog allergies may be worse during certain seasons; in the presence of cigarette smoke; of after the introduction of a new brand of furniture or fabric in the house.

Dog allergies treatment

Removing the offending allergen from the dog's environment is the ideal treatment for dog allergies. When this is not possible, a beneficial response may be achieved with antihistamines. Chlorpheniramine can be administered orally. Glucocorticoids can be used if antihistamines are unsuccessful. If treatment is effective, the dog's allergy signs will generally resolve within a few days. Medication is continued only as long as needed to control the signs.

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Dog Allergies | Allergies in Dogs

Dog Names
Give a name to your dog

The name you will choose for your dog is tied to your personality. It reflects the relationship you will have with your dog. Depending of the role of your dog (is it a therapy dog?A pet? A rescue dog?), it is very important to choose a dog name that projects the right image.

Click here for a complete list of dog names.

Dog Names - Find a Name for your Dog

Canine Arthritis | Arthritis in Dogs
A disorder resembling human arthritis rarely results in erosive polyarthritis and progressive joint destruction in dogs. Small and toy breeds are most commonly affected by dog arthritis. The age of onset is variable (9 months to 13 years), but most affected dogs are young or middle-aged. Initially, dog arthritis is indistinguishable from idiopathic nonerosive polyarthritis, but the joints are destroyed over time, with distal joints most severely affected.

Arthritis in dogs may result when a triggering event or inciting antigen initiates an immune reaction against endogenous antigens, causing immune complexes to form. Immune complexes are deposited in the synovium, resulting in complement activation, the chemotactic attraction of inflammatory cells, the intraarticular release of cytokines, synovial cell proliferation, and progressive, severe, erosive inflammatory joint disease.

Granulation tissue arises from the inflamed synovium and extends across the joint underneath the articular cartilage. This vascular granulation tissue (e.g., pannus) begins to erode cartilage, and joint swelling and periarticular inflammation cause the joint capsule to stretch and collateral ligaments to rupture. Early treatment of arthritis in dogs is important to prevent irreversible changes and progressive disease.

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Canine Arthritis | Arthritis in Dogs

Canine Skin Disease | Skin Infections in Dogs
Staphylococcus intermedius is the most common cause of pyoderma in dogs and cats. Deep pyoderma can be induced by any organism, including the gram-negative types. Most skin infections in dogs and cats, including open wounds and abscesses are infected with a mixed population of bacteria; the aerobic and anaerobic flora from the mouth are often involved.

Recommended empirical antibiotic choices for routine cases of pyoderma and skin diseases in dogs and cats are often treated with cephalosporins and amoxicillin-clavulanate. Other penicillins, such as oxacillin and cloxacillin, also can be used. Potentiated sulfas can be used to treat dogs and cats with superficial pyoderma but should be avoided if long-term treatment is needed because bacterial resistance occurs quickly.

Cutaneous and soft tissue infections that do not respond to those antibiotics may be caused by gram-negative bacteria, L-form bacteria. Quinolones are the antibiotic class of choice for the treatment of gram-negative infections.

Dogs and cats that fail to respond to empirical antibiotic treatment should undergo further diagnostic testing or should be treated with antibiotics known to have an effect against the less common pathogens. If not previously done, microscopic examination of tissue or pustule aspirates should be performed for the presence of Sporothrix organisms and bacteria morphologically similar to Mycobacterium spp. After surgical preparation of the skin, deep tissues should be obtained for aerobic, anaerobic Mycoplasma, fungal, and atypical Mycobacterium spp. culture.

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Canine Skin Disease | Skin Infections in Dogs

Here's a list of Dog Breeds | Canine Breeds:
* Affenpinscher
* Afghan Hound
* Africanis
* Aidi
* Airedale terrier
* Akbash Dog
* Akita
* Alangu Mastiff
* Alano Español
* Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog
* Alaskan Husky
* Alaskan Klee Kai
* Alaskan Malamute
* Alopekis
* Alpine Dachsbracke
* American Akita
* American Bulldog
* American Cocker Spaniel
* American Eskimo Dog
* American Foxhound
* American Mastiff
* American Pit Bull Terrier
* American Staffordshire Terrier
* American Water Spaniel
* Anatolian Shepherd Dog
* Anglo-Français de Petite Vénerie
* Appenzeller Sennenhund
* Argentine Dogo
* Ariege Pointer
* Ariegeois
* Armant
* Artois Hound
* Australian Bulldog
* Australian Cattle Dog
* Australian Kelpie
* Australian Shepherd
* Australian Silky Terrier
* Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog
* Australian terrier
* Austrian black and tan hound
* Austrian Pinscher
* Azawakh

* Bakharwal Dog
* Bandog
* Banjara Mastiff
* Barbet
* Basenji
* Basque Shepherd Dog
* Basset Artésien Normand
* Basset Bleu de Gascogne
* Basset Fauve de Bretagne
* Basset Griffon Vendéen
* Basset Hound
* Bavarian Mountain Hound
* Beagle
* Beagle-Harrier
* Bearded Collie
* Bearded Tibetan Mastiff
* Beauceron
* Bedlington Terrier
* Belgian Shepherd Dog
* Bergamasco
* Berger Blanc Suisse
* Berger Picard
* Bernese Mountain Do

* Bichon Frisé
* Bloodhound
* Biewer
* Billy
* Bisben
* Black and Tan Coonhound
* Black and Tan Virginia Foxhound
* Blackmouth Cur
* Black Norwegian Elkhound
* Black Russian Terrier
* Bloodhound
* Blue Lacy
* Blue Paul Terrier
* Bluetick Coonhound
* Border Collie
* Boerboel
* Bohemian Shepherd
* Bolognese
* Borador
* Border Collie
* Border Terrier
* Borzoi
* Bosnian Coarse-Haired Hound
* Boston terrier
* Bouvier des Ardennes
* Bouvier des Flandres
* Boxer
* Boykin Spaniel
* Bracco Italiano
* Bullmastiff
* Braque d'Auvergne
* Braque du Bourbonnais
* Braque Francais
* Brazilian Terrier
* Briard
* Briquet Griffon Vendéen
* Brittany
* Broholmer
* Bruno Jura hound
* Bull Terrier
* Bull Terrier (Miniature)
* Bull and Terrier
* Bulldog
* Bullmastiff
* Bully Kutta

* Cairn Terrier
* Canaan Dog
* Canadian Eskimo Dog
* Canadian Pointer
* Cane Corso
* Canis Panther
* Cão da Serra de Aires
* Cão de Castro Laboreiro
* Cão Fila de São Miguel
* Cão de Fila da Terceira
* Cão de Gado Transmontano
* Cardigan Welsh Corgi
* Carolina Dog
* Carpathian Shepherd Dog
* Catahoula Bulldog
* Catahoula Cur
* Catalan Sheepdog
* Caucasian Shepherd Dog
* Cavalier King Charles Spaniel
* Central Asian Shepherd Dog
* Cesky Fousek
* Cesky Terrier
* Chart Polski
* Chesapeake Bay Retriever
* Chien Français Blanc et Noir
* Chien Français Blanc et Orange
* Chien Français Tricolore
* Chihuahua
* Chilean Fox Terrier
* Chinese Chongqing Dog
* Chinese Crested Dog
* Chinook
* Chippiparai
* Chow Chow
* Ciobănesc de Bucovina
* Circassian Orloff Wolfhound
* Cirneco dell'Etna
* Clumber Spaniel
* Cocker Spaniel
* Coonhound
* Collie
* Combai
* Cordoba Fighting Dog
* Coton de Tulear
* Cretan Hound
* Croatian Sheepdog
* Cur
* Curly Coated Retriever
* Cypro Kukur
* Czechoslovakian Wolfdog

* Dachshund
* Dalmatian
* Dandie Dinmont Terrier
* Danish/Swedish Farm Dog
* Deutsche Bracke
* Dingo
* Doberman Pinscher
* Dogo Cubano
* Dogo Guatemalteco
* Dogo Sardesco
* Dogue de Bordeaux
* Drentse Patrijshond
* Drever
* Dunker
* Dutch Shepherd Dog
* Dutch Smoushond

* East-European Shepherd
* East Siberian Laika
* Elo
* English Cocker Spaniel
* English Coonhound
* English Foxhound
* English Mastiff
* English Pointer
* English Setter
* English Shepherd
* English Springer Spaniel
* English Toy Terrier (Black & Tan)
* English White Terrier
* Entlebucher Mountain Dog
* Epagneul Bleu de Picardie
* Estonian Hound
* Estrela Mountain Dog
* Eurasier
* Eurohound

* Fell Terrier
* Feist
* Field Spaniel
* Fila Brasileiro
* Finnish Hound
* Finnish Lapphund
* Finnish Spitz
* Flat-Coated Retriever
* Formosan Mountain Dog
* Foxhound
* Fox Terrier
* Franzuskaya Bolonka
* French Brittany
* French Bulldog
* French Spaniel

* Galgo Español
* Gawii
* German Coolie
* German Longhaired Pointer
* German Pinscher
* German Shepherd Dog
* German Shorthaired Pointer
* German Spaniel
* German Spitz
* German Wirehaired Pointer
* Giant Schnauzer
* Glen of Imaal Terrier
* golden dugog
* Golden Retriever
* Gordon Setter
* Grand Anglo-Francais Blanc et Noir
* Grand Anglo-Francais Blanc et Orange
* Grand Anglo-Francais Tricolore
* Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen
* Grand Bleu de Gascogne
* Grand Gascon Saintongeois
* Grand Griffon Vendéen
* Gran Mastín de Borínquen
* Great Dane
* Great Pyrenees
* Greater Swiss Mountain Dog
* Greek Sheepdog
* Greenland Dog
* Greyhound
* Griffon Bleu de Gascogne
* Griffon Bruxellois
* Griffon Fauve de Bretagne
* Griffon Nivernais
* Guejae Gae
* Gull Dong
* Gull Terr

* Hairless dog
* Hairless Khala
* Haldenstøvare
* Hamiltonstövare
* Hanover Hound
* Harlequin Pinscher
* Harrier
* Havanese
* Hawaiian Poi Dog
* Hellenic Hound
* Hermes Bulldogge
* Hertha Pointer
* Himalayan Sheepdog
* Himalayan Mastiff
* Hokkaido
* Hortaya Borzaya
* Hovawart
* Hungarian hound
* Huntaway
* Husky
* Hygenhund

* Icelandic Sheepdog
* Indian Spitz
* Indian Bull Terrier
* Irish Bull Terrier
* Irish Red and White Setter
* Irish Setter
* Irish Staffordshire Bull Terrier
* Irish Terrier
* Irish Water Spaniel
* Irish Wolfhound
* Istarski Oštrodlaki Gonič
* Italian Greyhound

* Jack Russell Terrier
* Jagdterrier
* Jämthund
* Japanese Chin
* Japanese Spitz
* Japanese Terrier
* Jonangi

* Kaikadi
* Kai Ken
* Kangal Dog
* Kangaroo Dog
* Kanni
* Karakachan Dog
* Karelian Bear Dog
* Karelo-Finnish Laika
* Kars Dog
* Karst Shepherd
* Keeshond
* Kerry Beagle
* Kerry Blue Terrier
* King Charles Spaniel
* King Shepherd
* Kintamani
* Kishu
* Komondor
* Kooikerhondje
* Koolie
* Korea Jindo Dog
* Korean Mastiff
* Kromfohrlander
* Kuchi
* Kunming Wolf-dog
* Kuvasz
* Kyi-Leo

* Labradoodle
* Labrador Husky
* Labrador Retriever
* Lagotto Romagnolo
* Lakeland Terrier
* Laika
* Lancashire Heeler
* Landseer
* Lapponian Herder
* Large Münsterländer
* Latvian Hound
* Leonberger
* Lhasa Apso
* Lithuanian Hound
* Longdog
* Lottatore Brindisino
* Löwchen
* Lucas Terrier
* Lupo Italiano
* Lurcher

* Mackenzie River Husky
* Maltese
* Magyar Agar
* Majestic Tree Hound
* Maltese
* Manchester Terrier
* Maremma Sheepdog
* Martin Mosa Mastiff
* Mastiff
* McNab
* Mexican Hairless Dog
* Miniature Australian Shepherd
* Miniature Fox Terrier
* Miniature Pinscher
* Miniature Schnauzer
* Miniature Siberian Husky
* Mioritic
* Moscow Watchdog
* Mountain Cur
* Mountain Feist
* Mountain View Cur
* Mucuchies
* Mudi
* Mudhol Hound
* Münsterländer
* Murray River Curly Coated retriever

* Native American Indian Dog
* Neapolitan Mastiff
* Nebolish Mastiff
* Nenets Herding Laika
* Newfoundland
* New Guinea Singing Dog
* Norfolk Terrier
* Norrbottenspets
* Northeasterly Hauling Laika
* Northern Inuit Dog
* Norwegian Buhund
* Norwegian Elkhound
* Norwegian Lundehund
* Norwich Terrier
* Nova Scotia Duck-Tolling Retriever

* Old Danish Pointer
* Old English Sheepdog
* Old English Bulldog
* Old English Terrier
* Olde English Bulldogge
* Otterhound

* Pachon Navarro
* Papillon
* Parson Russell Terrier
* Pastor Garafiano
* Patterdale Terrier
* Pekingese
* Pembroke Welsh Corgi
* Perdiguero de Burgos
* Perro Cimarron
* Perro de Pastor Mallorquin
* Perro de Presa Canario
* Perro de Presa Mallorquin
* Perro de Toro
* Peruvian Hairless Dog
* Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen
* Petit Bleu de Gascogne
* Petit Gascon Saintongeois
* Phalène
* Pharaoh Hound
* Picardy Spaniel
* Pinscher
* Pit Bull
* Plott Hound
* Podenco Andaluz
* Podenco Canario
* Podenco Galego
* Pointer
* Poitevin
* Polish Hound
* Polish Hunting Dog
* Polish Lowland Sheepdog
* Polish Tatra Sheepdog
* Pomeranian
* Pont-Audemer Spaniel
* Poodle
* Porcelaine
* Portuguese Podengo
* Portuguese Pointer
* Portuguese Water Dog
* Posavac Hound
* Pražský Krysařík
* Pudelpointer
* Pug
* Pugnaces Britanniae
* Puli
* Pumi
* Pungsan Dog
* Pyrenean Mastiff
* Pyrenean Shepherd

* Rafeiro do Alentejo
* Rajapalayam
* Rampur Greyhound
* Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz
* Rat Terrier
* Redbone Coonhound
* Rhodesian Ridgeback
* Rottweiler
* Rough Collie
* Russian Harlequin Hound
* Russian Hound
* Russian Spaniel
* Russkiy Toy
* Russo-European Laika
* Russell Terrier
* Ryūkyū Inu

* Saarlooswolfhond
* Sabueso español
* Sage Koochee
* Sakhalin Husky
* Saluki
* Samoyed
* Sanshu
* Santal Hound
* Sapsali
* Šarplaninac
* Schapendoes
* Schillerstovare
* Schipperke
* Schnauzer
* Schweizer Laufhund
* Schweizer Niederlaufhund
* Scottish Deerhound
* Scottish Terrier
* Sealyham Terrier
* Segugio Italiano
* Seppala Siberian Sleddog
* Serbian Hound
* Serbian Mountain Hound
* Serbian Shepherd Dog
* Serbian Tricolour Hound

* Shar Pei
* Shetland Sheepdog
* Shiba Inu
* Shih Tzu
* Shikoku
* Shiloh Shepherd Dog
* Siberian Husky
* Silken Windhound
* Sindh Mastiff
* Skye Terrier
* Sloughi
* Slovak cuvac
* Slovakian Hound
* Slovakian Rough Haired Pointer
* Smålandsstövare
* Small Greek Domestic Dog
* Small Münsterländer
* Smithfield
* Smooth Collie
* Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
* South Russian Ovcharka
* Spanish Mastiff
* Spanish Pointer
* Spanish Water Dog
* Spinone Italiano
* Spitz
* Sporting Lucas Terrier
* Springer Spaniel
* St. Bernard
* Stabyhoun
* Staffordshire Bull Terrier
* Standard Schnauzer
* Stephens Stock
* Styrian Coarse Haired Hound
* Sulimov dog
* Sussex Spaniel
* Swedish Lapphund
* Swedish Vallhund
* Swiss Shorthaired Pinscher

* Tahltan Bear Dog
* Taigan
* Tamaskan dog
* Tasy
* Teddy Roosevelt Terrier
* Telomian
* Tenterfield Terrier
* Thai Bangkaew Dog
* Thai Ridgeback
* Tibetan Kyi Apso
* Tibetan Mastiff
* Tibetan Spaniel
* Tibetan Terrier
* Tornjak
* Tosa
* Toy Bulldog
* Toy Fox Terrier
* Toy Manchester Terrier
* Treeing Cur
* Treeing Tennessee Brindle
* Treeing Walker Coonhound
* Tsvetnaya Bolonka
* Tyrolean Hound

* Utonagan

* Walker Hound
* Weimaraner
* Welsh Corgi
* Welsh Sheepdog
* Welsh Springer Spaniel
* Welsh Terrier
* West Highland White Terrier
* West Siberian Laika
* Westphalian Dachsbracke
* Wetterhoun
* Whippet
* White Shepherd Dog
* Winston Olde English Bulldogge
* Wire-haired Vizsla
* Wirehaired Pointing Griffon

* Yorkshire Terrier

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Dog Breeds | Canine Breeds

Signs and symptoms of rabies in dogs.

Rabies virus infection usually produces fatal encephalomyelitis in dogs and cats
. The source of rabies infection is generally considered to be the bite of an infected animal that has rabies virus in the saliva. Bats, racoons, skunks, and foxes most commonly serve as the source of rabies exposure.

Rabies in dogs and cats can have a wide range of clinical signs, making it difficult to differentiate from other acute, progressive encephalomyelitis syndromes. Because of its public health significance, rabies should be on the list of differential diagnoses considered in every animal with rapidly progressing neurologic dysfunction.

In naturally occurring rabies in dogs and cats, the initial signs may include behavior changes of depression, dementia, or aggression. Excessive salivation, difficulty swallowing, and multiple cranial nerve deficits are usually seen, suggesting brainstem disease. Ataxia and rear limb paresis progressing to flaccid quadriparesis are common. There may be a history of contact with a known rabid animal. Animals may shed rabies virus in the saliva for up to 14 days before the onset of clinical signs. The incubation period from the time of the bite to the onset of clinical signs is extremely variable (1 week to 8 months). However, once neurologic signs are seen, the disease is rapidly progressive, with death occurring within 7 days in most animals.

Any unvaccinated animal with an acute, rapidly progressive course of neurologic disease should be considered a rabies suspect and handled with caution. There is no feature specific to rabies in dogs and cats. Dogs and cats should receive their first rabies vaccine after 12 weeks of age and then again 1 year later. Subsequent boosters are administered every 1 to 3 years, depending on the vaccine used and local public health regulations. Rarely, soft-tissue sarcomas have developed in cats at the site of rabies virus prophylactic inoculation.

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Canine Rabies - Rabies in Dogs

Canine Salmonellosis | Salmonellosis in Dogs
There are numerous Salmonella serotypes that may cause disease. The bacteria may originate from animals shedding the organism (e.g., infected dogs and cats) or from contaminated foods (especially poultry and eggs).

Salmonella spp. are seldom confirmed to cause dogs or cats GI disease, even though the bacteria are often present in the colon and/or mesenteric lymp nodes. Salmonella spp. may produce acute or chronic diarrhea, septicemia, and/or sudden death, especially in very young dogs and cats. Salmonellosis in dogs and cats can produce a syndrome that closely mimics parvoviral enteritis. The fact that samonellosis occasionally develops during or after canine parvoviral enteritis makes the situation more confusing.

Culture of Salmonella spp. from the blood confirms septicemia. Diagnosis of GI salmonellosis requires culture of the organism from the feces or mucosa, appropriate clinical signs, elimination of other causes (e.g., parvovirus), and response to therapy. However, Salmonella may be cultures from normal dogs and cats; therefore, definitive diagnosis can be difficult. Successful fecal culture often necessitates use of enrichment and/or selective media. Identification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be a sensitive method of diagnosis.

If salmonellosis in dogs and cats is diagnosed, treatment depends on the animal's clinical signs. Septicemic animals should receive supportive therapy and parental antibiotics as determined by susceptibility testing, but quinolones, potentiated sulfa drugs, and chloramphenicol are often good initial choices.

Dogs and cats with diarrhea may need only supportive therapy; antibiotics are a dubious value and might promote a carrier state. Infected animals might be public health risks and should be isolated from other animals, at least until they are asymptomatic. even when signs disappear, reculturing of feces is reasonable to ensure that shedding has stopped. Individuals in contact with the animals, its environment, and its waste should wear protective clothing and wash with disinfectants such as phenolic compounds and bleach.

The prognosis is usually good in dogs and cats with only diarrhea but guarded in septicemic animals.

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Canine Salmonellosis | Salmonellosis in Dogs

Canine Salmon Poisoning | Salmon Poisoning in Dogs

Salmon poisoning in dogs
is caused by Neorickettsia helminthoeca. Dogs are infected when they eat fish (primarily salmon) infected with a fluke (Nanophyetus salmincola) that carries the rickettsia. The rickettsia spreads to the intestines and most lymph nodes, causing inflammation. The disease is principally found in the Pacific northwestern Unites States because the snail intermediate host for N. salmincola lives there.

Dogs, not cats, are affected. The severity of signs varies and may include fever, anorexia, vomiting, generalized lymphadenopathy and diarrhea. The diarrhea is typically small bowel but may become bloody. Inappropriate therapy may result to death.

Presumptive diagnosis is usually based on the dog's habitat plus a history of recent consumption of raw fish or exposure to streams or lakes. Finding Nanophyetus spp. ova in the stool or rickettsia in fine-needles aspirates of enlarged lymph nodes is confirmatory.

Salmon poisoning treatment for dogs consists of symptomatic control of dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea and elimination of the rickettsia and fluke. Tetracycline, oxy tetracycline, doxycyline, or chloramphenicol eliminates the rickettsia. The fluke is killed with praziquantel.

The prognosis depends on the clinical severity at the time of diagnosis. Most dogs respond favorably to tetracyclines and supportive therapy. The key to success is awareness of the disease. Untreated salmon poisoning in dogs has a poor prognosis.

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Canine Salmon Poisoning | Salmon Poisoning in Dogs

Canine Coronaviral Enteritis | Coronaviral Enteritis in Dogs

Coronaviral enteritis in dogs
occurs when coronavirus invades and destroys mature cells on the intestinal villi. Because intestinal crypts remain intact, villi regenerate faster in dogs with coronaviral enteritis than in dogs with parvoviral enteritis; bone marrow cells are not affected.
Coronaviral enteritis in dogs is typically less severe than classic parvoviral enteritis and rarely causes hemmorrhagic diarrhea, septicema, or death. Older dogs may be affected in addition to younger dogs. Signs may last approximately 3 to 20 days, and small or very young dogs may die from dehydration or electrolyte abnormalities if they are not properly treated. Dual infection with parvovirus may produce a high incidence of morbidity and mortality.

Because coronaviral enteritis in dogs is usually much less severe than many other enteritides, it is seldom definitely diagnosed. Most dogs are treated symptomatically for acute enteritis until they improve. Electron microscopic examination of feces obtained early in the course of the disease can be diagnostic. However, the virus is fragile and easily disrupted by inappropriate handling of the feces. A history of contagion and eliminating other causes are reasons to suspect coronaviral enteritis in dogs.

Fluid therapy, motility modifiers and time should resolve most cases of coronaviral enteritis in dogs. Symptomatic therapy is usually successful except perhaps for very young dogs. A vaccination is available but of uncertain value except perhaps in dogs at high risk of infection (e.g., those in infected kennels or dog shows). The prognosis for recovery is usually good.

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Canine Coronaviral Enteritis | Coronaviral Enteritis in Dogs

Canine Bronchitis | Bronchitis in Dogs

Chronic bronchitis in dogs
refers to long-term airway inflammation. There is generally a component of irreversible damage. Histologic changes of the airways include fibrosis, epithelial hyperplasia, glandular hypertrophy, and inflammatory infiltrates. Excessive mucus is present within the airways, and small airway obstruction and airway collapse occur. The cause is often not discovered, but long-standing inflammatory processes resulting from infections, allergies, or inhaled irritants can be at fault. Infections can also occur secondary to canine chronic bronchitis, making a cause-and-effect relationship difficult to determine.
Chronic bronchitis in dogs occurs in middle-aged or older, small breeds. These breeds are also predisposed to the development of collapsing trachea and mitral insufficiency with left atrial enlargement causing compression of the mainstream bronchi. These diseases must be differentiated and their contribution to the development of the current clinical features determined for appropriate management to be implemented.

Dogs with bronchitis are evaluated because of cough, which can be productive or non-productive. The cough has usually slowly progressed over months to years, with no systemic signs of illness such as anorexia, weight loss or lethargy. As the disease progresses, exercise intolerance becomes evident; then incessant coughing or overt respiratory distress is seen. Dogs with respiratory distress show marked expiratory efforts because of the narrowing and collapse of the intrathoracic airways.

Increased breath sounds, wheezes, or crackles, are auscultated in dogs with chronic bronchitis. end-expiratory clicks caused by mainstream bronchial or intrathoracic tracheal collapse may be heard in dogs with advanced bronchitis. A prominent or split second heart sound occurs in animals with secondary pulmonary hypertension.

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Canine Bronchitis | Bronchitis in Dogs

Canine Parasites | Parasites in Dogs

Dog Parasites
are a fascinating group of invertebrates that are found in and on all groups of animals of interest in veterinary medicine. They have evolved and developed with many of their hosts and may or may not produce clinical disease, depending on a variety of environmental, ecological, immunological, physiological, and managerial factors that influence the host-parasite relationship.

This relationship is constantly changing, and as producers change management systems through animal breeding, animal manipulation, exotic introductions, environmental control, and use of pet meds, different manifestations of diseases are observed. As an example, Facioloides magna is a liver fluke of whitetailed deer and elk and usually does not harm these hosts. However, when domestic sheeps or goats are grazed in areas where F. magna is present, death of sheeps and goats occurs within a relatively short time. Some hosts cannot tolerate the effects of specific parasites and die, whereas other hosts are well adapted to the parasite and no clinical signs of siseases are present.

Since many parasites can be pathogenic, the goal of the clinician and producer is prevention of clinical parasitism through management, nutrition, epizootiology, and effective drugs. Knoledge of life cycles and epizootiology must be used in the formulation of effective parasite control programs. Indiscriminate use of drugs is a poor substitute for suboptimal management. A final word is that new parasites and ecological relationships are being discovered, so do not be surprised when you make a discovery contrary to published reports.

Canine Parasites | Parasites in Dogs