Renal effects in dogs and cats

Renal efferent glomerular arteriolar constriction, mediated by sympathetic stimulation and angiotensin II, helps maintain glomerular filtration in the face of reduced cardiac output and renal blood flow. Higher oncotic and lower hydrostatic pressures develop in the peritubular capillaries, enhancing the reabsorption of tubular fluid and sodium. Angiotensin II - mediated aldosterone release further promotes sodium and water retention. Continued activation of these mechanisms leads to clinical edema and effusions.

Afferent arteriolar vasodilatation mediated by endogenous prostaglandins and natriuretic peptides can partially offset the effects of efferent vasoconstriction, but progressive impairment of renal blood flow leads to renal insufficiency. Diuretics not iaconly can magnify azotemia and electrolyte loss, they also can further reduce cardiac output and activate the neurohormonal mechanisms.

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